# NAME

openssl-pkcs8, pkcs8 - PKCS#8 format private key conversion tool

# SYNOPSIS

**openssl** **pkcs8** [

**-help**] [

**-topk8**] [

**-inform
PEM|DER**] [

**-outform PEM|DER**] [

**-in filename**] [

**-passin
arg**] [

**-out filename**] [

**-passout arg**] [

**-iter count**]
[

**-noiter**] [

**-nocrypt**] [

**-traditional**] [

**-v2 alg**]
[

**-v2prf alg**] [

**-v1 alg**] [

**-engine id**] [

**-scrypt**]
[

**-scrypt_N N**] [

**-scrypt_r r**] [

**-scrypt_p p**]

# DESCRIPTION

The

**pkcs8** command processes private keys in PKCS#8 format. It can handle
both unencrypted PKCS#8 PrivateKeyInfo format and EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo
format with a variety of PKCS#5 (v1.5 and v2.0) and PKCS#12 algorithms.

# OPTIONS

**-help**
- Print out a usage message.

**-topk8**
- Normally a PKCS#8 private key is expected on input and a
private key will be written to the output file. With the
**-topk8**
option the situation is reversed: it reads a private key and writes a
PKCS#8 format key.

**-inform DER|PEM**
- This specifies the input format: see "KEY
FORMATS" for more details.

**-outform DER|PEM**
- This specifies the output format: see "KEY
FORMATS" for more details.

**-traditional**
- When this option is present and
**-topk8** is not a
traditional format private key is written.

**-in filename**
- This specifies the input filename to read a key from or
standard input if this option is not specified. If the key is encrypted a
pass phrase will be prompted for.

**-passin arg**
- the input file password source. For more information about
the format of
**arg** see the **PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS** section in
*openssl*(1).

**-out filename**
- This specifies the output filename to write a key to or
standard output by default. If any encryption options are set then a pass
phrase will be prompted for. The output filename should
**not** be the
same as the input filename.

**-passout arg**
- the output file password source. For more information about
the format of
**arg** see the **PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS** section in
*openssl*(1).

**-iter count**
- When creating new PKCS#8 containers, use a given number of
iterations on the password in deriving the encryption key for the PKCS#8
output. High values increase the time required to brute-force a PKCS#8
container.

**-nocrypt**
- PKCS#8 keys generated or input are normally PKCS#8
EncryptedPrivateKeyInfo structures using an appropriate password based
encryption algorithm. With this option an unencrypted PrivateKeyInfo
structure is expected or output. This option does not encrypt private keys
at all and should only be used when absolutely necessary. Certain software
such as some versions of Java code signing software used unencrypted
private keys.

**-v2 alg**
- This option sets the PKCS#5 v2.0 algorithm.

The **alg** argument is the encryption algorithm to use, valid values
include **aes128**, **aes256** and **des3**. If this option isn't
specified then **aes256** is used.

**-v2prf alg**
- This option sets the PRF algorithm to use with PKCS#5 v2.0.
A typical value value would be
**hmacWithSHA256**. If this option isn't
set then the default for the cipher is used or **hmacWithSHA256** if
there is no default.

Some implementations may not support custom PRF algorithms and may require
the **hmacWithSHA1** option to work.

**-v1 alg**
- This option indicates a PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 algorithm
should be used. Some older implementations may not support PKCS#5 v2.0 and
may require this option. If not specified PKCS#5 v2.0 form is used.

**-engine id**
- specifying an engine (by its unique
**id** string) will
cause **pkcs8** to attempt to obtain a functional reference to the
specified engine, thus initialising it if needed. The engine will then be
set as the default for all available algorithms.

**-scrypt**
- uses the
**scrypt** algorithm for private key encryption
using default parameters: currently N=16384, r=8 and p=1 and AES in CBC
mode with a 256 bit key. These parameters can be modified using the
**-scrypt_N**, **-scrypt_r**, **-scrypt_p** and **-v2**
options.

**-scrypt_N N** **-scrypt_r r** **-scrypt_p p**

sets the scrypt **N**, **r** or **p** parameters.

# KEY FORMATS

Various different formats are used by the pkcs8 utility. These are detailed
below.

If a key is being converted from PKCS#8 form (i.e. the

**-topk8** option is
not used) then the input file must be in PKCS#8 format. An encrypted key is
expected unless

**-nocrypt** is included.

If

**-topk8** is not used and

**PEM** mode is set the output file will be
an unencrypted private key in PKCS#8 format. If the

**-traditional** option
is used then a traditional format private key is written instead.

If

**-topk8** is not used and

**DER** mode is set the output file will be
an unencrypted private key in traditional DER format.

If

**-topk8** is used then any supported private key can be used for the
input file in a format specified by

**-inform**. The output file will be
encrypted PKCS#8 format using the specified encryption parameters unless

**-nocrypt** is included.

# NOTES

By default, when converting a key to PKCS#8 format, PKCS#5 v2.0 using 256 bit
AES with HMAC and SHA256 is used.

Some older implementations do not support PKCS#5 v2.0 format and require the
older PKCS#5 v1.5 form instead, possibly also requiring insecure weak
encryption algorithms such as 56 bit DES.

The encrypted form of a PEM encode PKCS#8 files uses the following headers and
footers:

-----BEGIN ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----
-----END ENCRYPTED PRIVATE KEY-----

The unencrypted form uses:

-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
-----END PRIVATE KEY-----

Private keys encrypted using PKCS#5 v2.0 algorithms and high iteration counts
are more secure that those encrypted using the traditional SSLeay compatible
formats. So if additional security is considered important the keys should be
converted.

It is possible to write out DER encoded encrypted private keys in PKCS#8 format
because the encryption details are included at an ASN1 level whereas the
traditional format includes them at a PEM level.

# PKCS#5 v1.5 and PKCS#12 algorithms.

Various algorithms can be used with the

**-v1** command line option,
including PKCS#5 v1.5 and PKCS#12. These are described in more detail below.

**PBE-MD2-DES PBE-MD5-DES**
- These algorithms were included in the original PKCS#5 v1.5
specification. They only offer 56 bits of protection since they both use
DES.

**PBE-SHA1-RC2-64 PBE-MD2-RC2-64 PBE-MD5-RC2-64
PBE-SHA1-DES**
- These algorithms are not mentioned in the original PKCS#5
v1.5 specification but they use the same key derivation algorithm and are
supported by some software. They are mentioned in PKCS#5 v2.0. They use
either 64 bit RC2 or 56 bit DES.

**PBE-SHA1-RC4-128 PBE-SHA1-RC4-40 PBE-SHA1-3DES
PBE-SHA1-2DES PBE-SHA1-RC2-128 PBE-SHA1-RC2-40**
- These algorithms use the PKCS#12 password based encryption
algorithm and allow strong encryption algorithms like triple DES or 128
bit RC2 to be used.

# EXAMPLES

Convert a private key to PKCS#8 format using default parameters (AES with 256
bit key and

**hmacWithSHA256**):

openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -out enckey.pem

Convert a private key to PKCS#8 unencrypted format:

openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -nocrypt -out enckey.pem

Convert a private key to PKCS#5 v2.0 format using triple DES:

openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -v2 des3 -out enckey.pem

Convert a private key to PKCS#5 v2.0 format using AES with 256 bits in CBC mode
and

**hmacWithSHA512** PRF:

openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -v2 aes-256-cbc -v2prf hmacWithSHA512 -out enckey.pem

Convert a private key to PKCS#8 using a PKCS#5 1.5 compatible algorithm (DES):

openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -v1 PBE-MD5-DES -out enckey.pem

Convert a private key to PKCS#8 using a PKCS#12 compatible algorithm (3DES):

openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -out enckey.pem -v1 PBE-SHA1-3DES

Read a DER unencrypted PKCS#8 format private key:

openssl pkcs8 -inform DER -nocrypt -in key.der -out key.pem

Convert a private key from any PKCS#8 encrypted format to traditional format:

openssl pkcs8 -in pk8.pem -traditional -out key.pem

Convert a private key to PKCS#8 format, encrypting with AES-256 and with one
million iterations of the password:

openssl pkcs8 -in key.pem -topk8 -v2 aes-256-cbc -iter 1000000 -out pk8.pem

# STANDARDS

Test vectors from this PKCS#5 v2.0 implementation were posted to the pkcs-tng
mailing list using triple DES, DES and RC2 with high iteration counts, several
people confirmed that they could decrypt the private keys produced and
Therefore it can be assumed that the PKCS#5 v2.0 implementation is reasonably
accurate at least as far as these algorithms are concerned.

The format of PKCS#8 DSA (and other) private keys is not well documented: it is
hidden away in PKCS#11 v2.01, section 11.9. OpenSSL's default DSA PKCS#8
private key format complies with this standard.

# BUGS

There should be an option that prints out the encryption algorithm in use and
other details such as the iteration count.

# SEE ALSO

*dsa*(1),

*rsa*(1),

*genrsa*(1),

*gendsa*(1)

# HISTORY

The

**-iter** option was added to OpenSSL 1.1.0.

# COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2000-2016 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.

Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the "License"). You may not use
this file except in compliance with the License. You can obtain a copy in the
file LICENSE in the source distribution or at
<https://www.openssl.org/source/license.html>.